They identify five steps by which theory and empirical findings should be used to develop health education programmes. Delicate negotiations were required to achieve a successful compromise of social cognitive theory and orthodox health education principles. Our feedback data supported the use of mixed-sex groups suggesting that: The principle that teachers should support students to set their own agendas is frequently alluded to in health education literature [e. Four basic principles underpinned the development of the programme. Some boys disputed masculine stereotypes and a few girls drew on experiences with older boyfriends to confirm them, but many students did not participate and small group work tended to degenerate into non-work discussion.
Effective prevention of sexually transmitted infections STIs depends upon a good understanding of sexual activities and their associated transmission risks. It considers some of the practical difficulties involved in translating research-based conclusions into acceptable, replicable and potentially effective classroom lessons. This information is supplied for your personal use only. Role-plays providing practice in safer sex negotiation rarely worked well with students lacking the imagination to think of useful lines, or, more often, not taking the exercise seriously and disrupting it or refusing to take part. In the first year of the programme, two sessions explored negotiation difficulties and used role-plays to develop confidence in dismissing pressure from others and asserting one's own intentions. This research and feedback resulted in substantial changes in pilot materials, illustrating the importance of an iterative approach to intervention development, in which practical constraints are addressed in the design and piloting stage Bartholomew et al. Observations of others' actions may change normative beliefs and enhance self-efficacy through social modelling and persuasion Bandura, , and, in doing so, is likely to prompt protective intention formation Ajzen and Madden, Historical background and methods The project started with research into current sex education in schools in eastern Scotland Wight and Scott, , which combined a needs assessment with the exploration of practical strategies for an innovative programme [cf. They're all making it up. In addition, the SHARE pack development team primarily Wight, Dixon, Abraham and Scott received advice and comment from five UK sex education experts as well as lead researchers involved in the development and evaluation of previous classroom-based programmes [e. Reduce the rate of unwanted pregnancies. In addition, evidence of coercive behaviour Holland et al. This is below the minimum school leaving age of 16 in the UK, thus including nearly all young people of a given age and, unlike most service provision or community education, enabling as many young men as women to be reached Abraham and Wight, We offer schools a range of resource ideas including the Christopher Winter Project, BBC and Channel 4 but do not actively recommend one resource over another. This paper focuses on the processes by which this was achieved and seeks to illuminate the transition from the theoretical starting point of the first principle to the practical goal of the fourth. This suggests that many traditional school-based programmes should be expanded. You'd show respect to your girlfriend, ken, or you'd get a slap in the chops Boys' and girls' self-worth is more closely related to their perceptions of the opinions of their own sex than those of the opposite sex Gagnon and Simon, ; Wight, Draw upon the best existing sex education materials and practice. Boys worked better in mixed groups because in general the girls were more willing to apply themselves to the programme exercises. Phenomenological analysis has revealed conscious and unconscious patterns of interaction inherent in romantic and sexual negotiation, highlighting, for example, the way partners strive to maintain ambiguity about their sexual intentions in the early stages of a relationship or encounter Kent and Davies, [see Wight et al. The classroom itself is a highly salient social context for students, and their relationships with classmates and teachers regulate their participation in any educational programme. Clear messages are recommended by research indicating that specific intentions and action planning are essential prerequisites of action [e. Be theoretically based and apply findings from recent social science research into young people's sexuality. Participants sometimes became involved and interested in opposite gender perspectives through discussing issues with the opposite sex.
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1978 -1980 SPECIAL REPORT: "SEX EDUCATION"
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